Systemic effects (1) Cancer Risk: A study of British workers in the chemical dye industry exposed to aniline and other chemicals concluded that there was insufficient evidence to suggest that aniline itself is a cause of bladder … [citeseerx.ist.psu.edu] Treatment is supportive for most poisonings; specific antidotes are necessary for a few. 1988; 26(5-6):357-64 (ISSN: 0731-3810) Mier RJ. The knowledge about the most common causes, fast diagnostic, and proper treatment is crucial. Can aniline poisoning be treated? In both species aniline is metabolized primarily by N-acetylation followed by aromatic ring … Arterial blood gas before and after administration of first dose of methylene blue 150 mg. liver, and kidney effects may be secondary to hemolysis. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. Aniline vapor is heavier than air and may accumulate in low-lying areas. H‰´UMÚ0½ó+æ˜Hq _H©@[uo¹UU•&°K‘°»üûڙ›½ödǞ¯7~ó²\¯`4^M~kˆ¡ÜŽ¢dªô,ƒ(VE͵΋Eùw4.ˍ´JÒ´½ Ä+ÍWZ'PÖÙ] 888-232-6348 (TTY) Aniline may also cause the destruction of red blood cells, Aniline poisoning was suspected and 75 mg stat dose of methylene blue was intravenously administered as per standard treatment protocol. Persons exposed only to aniline vapor do not pose risks of secondary contamination to others. The primary effect of an acute exposure to aniline … Persons exposed only to aniline vapor do not pose secondary ANILINE is an aromatic amine used chiefly in the chemical industry in the manufacture of dyes, dye intermediates, rubber accelerators, antioxidants, drugs, photographic chemicals, isocyanates, herbicides, and fungicides. decontaminated do not pose secondary contamination risks Harrison JH, Jollow DJ. Dawson AH, Whyte IM. exposed by vapor off-gassing from heavily contaminated clothing occur from all routes of exposure and can include methemoglobinemia Email: Contact CDC-INFO. Exchange transfusion proved successful. The dye consisted of pure aniline. blood cells may cause cardiopulmonary complaints with the The branch of medicine that deals with the detection and treatment of poisons is known as toxicology. The differences in toxicity between rats and mice with respect to aniline treatment seem to indicate a quantitative higher susceptibility of rats, especially male rats, which may be explainable by differences in the metabolic pathways. 1972 Oct; 10 (5):671–679. of cardiopulmonary support and administration of the methemoglobinemia Like most volatile amines, it has … Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid aniline can cause secondary contamination by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. Generally, the more serious the exposure, the more severe the symptoms. Generally, the more serious the exposure, the more severe the symptoms. development of ischemia, arrhythmia and shock. It is an industrially significant commodity chemical, as well as a versatile starting material for fine chemical synthesis. Accidental bromethalin exposures in children appear to be self-limited in toxicity. The symptoms of acute acetanilid poisoning-cyanosis, prostra-tion, and collapse-usually appear within a few hours after the ingestion of a toxic dose of the drug and poisoning may result from relatively small doses. Poisoning with inhalational nitrites is a recognised cause of methaemoglobinaemia presenting to the emergency department. Where dyspnea and cyanosis are most marked, the inhalation of a … benzene poisoning,fl even though exposures may have been to nitro-benzene or aniline (Von Oettingen, 1941; Gosselin et al., 1984). Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane, dyes, and other industrial chemicals. Description Poisonings are a common occurrence. difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or chest pain, blood in the urine (brown- or bronze-colored urine), blue, brown, or gray color of the skin, lips, or nailbeds. Acute aniline poisoning due to the pure chemical is rare. Treatment of any poisoning begins with the restoration of airway patency, stabilization of breathing and circulation. Management of dapsone poisoning … … endstream endobj 94 0 obj <>stream In the treatment of aniline dye poisoning in infancy all these measures except ascorbie acid have been used in the past. Treatment of aniline poisoning with exchange transfusion. Those whose clothing or 5-6, pp. Aniline poisoning symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Aniline poisoning (Chemical poisoning - Aniline) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis. recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Hemolytic anemia after aniline and aniline-related drugs such as dapsone and primaquine is thought to be mediated by active/reactive metabolite formed during the hepatic clearance of the parent compounds. secondary to hypoxia. Symptoms vary, but certain common syndromes may suggest particular classes of poisons. A solution of methylene blue may be given through a vein to patients who have been seriously exposed to aniline. ___________;__________. Heart, (1988). Aniline poisoning can be treated by a solution of the antidote toluidine blue or methylene blue given through a vein to seriously exposed patients. Mier, RJ. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, but for some poisonings, blood and urine tests can help. As a medication, it is mainly used to treat methemoglobinemia. Free Online Library: Severe methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia from aniline purchased as 2C-E (4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine), a recreational drug, on the internet--Oregon, 2011. by "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report"; Health, general Anemia Aniline Aromatic amines Hemolytic anemia Methemoglobinemia Poisoning … Aniline chemical by contacting: ____________ or _____________, or by J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. Patients exposed only to aniline vapor or who have been treated with aniline died during pregnancy. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. A solution of methylene blue may be given through a vein to patients who have been seriously exposed to aniline. Production of aniline oil in 1993 was approximately 1 billion pounds. About 10 million cases of poisoning … Treatment of aniline poisoning with exchange transfusion. Contribution of aniline metabolites to aniline-induced methemoglobinemia. MultiUn. Specifically, it is used to treat methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30% or in which there are symptoms despite oxygen therapy. Previously reported cases 1,2 include patients with severe poisoning … contamination risks to rescuers. Aniline can cause the membrane of the red blood cells to burst (hemolysis), which also will prevent oxygen from reaching tissues. ¿énŒS\.xYÓÂG£xb“ÖøýŠFQ€cÛ͏;\€*ä¬ý«,ŽCŸÃ\%Ιª?hLðZ. send him or her a record of your emergency department visit. individuals should be administered supplemental oxygen and The soldiers experienced … Aniline liquid and vapor are also absorbed well through skin, and this can contribute to systemic toxicity. LUBASH GD, PHILLIPS RE, SHIELDS JD, 3rd, BONSNES RW. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. A poisoning episode involving 17 men at a US army camp was traced to the wearing of newly dyed shoes or puttees; the shoe dye contained nitrobenzene (Stifel, 1919). These clinics specialize in Treatment of aniline poisoning with exchange transfusion. A case of aniline poisoning with methemoglobinemia unresponsive to methylene blue is described. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. 26, No. Food Cosmet Toxicol. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether more severe effects are precipitated when larger amounts are involved, particularly in suicidal ingestion. If the pieces of lead are visible on the roentgenogram of the abdominal cavity, the entire intestine is flushed with an electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol at a rate of 1000-2000 ml / h for adults or 25-40 ml / kg per … A rationale for the failure of methylene blue under … may also result, primarily secondary to hypoxia. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1988;26:357–64. or from the vomitus of victims who have ingested aniline. 1 Most often it occurs in children and industrial workers exposed to substances containing aniline dyes, such as inks, crayons, and shoe polishes. Aniline has a characteristic aromatic or fishy odor which provides adequate warning of acute exposure. [flipper.diff.org] Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.Clin Pharm 1992; 11: 800-5. 2 In standard treatment for aniline poisoning such measures as methylene blue, 3 glucose, ascorbic acid, and … National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. skin is contaminated with liquid aniline can secondarily Aniline Poisoning THOMAS E. KEARNEY, PharmD ANTHONY S. MANOGUERRA, PharmD JAMES V. DUNFORD, Jr, MD ... boththe symptoms and response to treatment of chem-ically induced methemoglobinemia.2,3,8,9 Jenkins FP, Robinson JA, Gellatly JB, Salmond GW. irregular heart rhythm, acid-base imbalance, Cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, coma, Author information: (1)Dept. Mol Pharmacol 1987;32:423–31. tract. and hemolysis. Aniline is rapidly absorbed after inhalation and ingestion. The concentration of MetHb does not exceed 1%–2% in the normal physiological state. contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through Þ_ÞJVãäªâCÉ(Yø+À a¦ pure aniline, with no evidence of 2C-E. Aniline is a common solvent used in manufacturing processes. REPORT OF A CASE. It consists of removal of the dye-containing clothing from the patient. å;h5Ë´þ| §*†àj•A°U@°7Ë¿fîn¦*‡ ê0ÊԂ Poisoning Definition Poisoning occurs when any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed. checking out the following Internet Web sites: After administration of the antidote the patient’s urine may temporarily become blue-green. It has previously been used for cyanide poisoning and … In the case of apnea or impaired patency of the upper respiratory tract (foreign body of the oropharynx, decreased pharyngeal reflex) endotracheal intubation is indicated. Treatment of Aniline Poisoning with Exchange Transfusion. LUBASH GD, PHILLIPS RE, SHIELDS JD, BONSNES RW. The skin should then be thoroughly cleansed with alcohol or ether in order to remove the dye that may be adherent. You or your physician can get more information on the which manifests as acute or delayed hemolytic anemia. 357-364. In industry, aniline is an initiator or intermediary in the synthesis of a wide variety of products, most notably polyurethane foam, agricultural chemicals, analge… CNS depression and cardiovascular collapse may result, primarily ACUTE ANILINE POISONING TREATED BY HEMODIALYSIS. The patients said they had not … Insufficient delivery of oxygen and destruction of red of decontamination and cardiopulmonary support. A case of aniline poisoning with methemoglobinemia unresponsive to methylene blue is described. Aniline can cause the membrane of the red blood cells to burst (hemolysis), which also will prevent oxygen from reaching tissues. The no-effect dose of aniline in human subjects and a comparison of aniline toxicity in man and the rat. In the treatment of methemoglobinenfia of various etiology in adults and children, oxygen inhalation, blood transfusions, methylene blue, and aseorbic acid have been the principle measures tried. Immediate treatment for aniline overexposure consists Aniline is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory In , aniline poisoning has been rst des cribed in a c ase. Two and a quarter hours after putting on the boots, cyanosis appeared which two hours later made the lips violet and the skin grey. death. The patient was treated immediately with 150 mg (2 mg/kg) intravenous methylene blue over 5 minutes. the methemoglobin antidote, methylene blue, as soon as possible. 1988;26(5-6):357-64. Mier RJ(1). Treatment of aniline poisoning is a relatively simple procedure. Ingestion of aniline can cause methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia through the action of its metabolites, phenylhydroxylamine and ami-nophenol, both strong oxidizing agents (1–4). number of your primary care physician so that the ED can J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. Survival of offspring in the aniline-treated group was decreased. rate, mild shortness of breath, Stupor, slow heart rate, respiratory depression, Some boots which had been dyed black eight days before, but had been kept in a closed box, originated an acute case of aniline poisoning. Treatment of lead poisoning (Saturnism) All patients should be isolated from the source of lead. CNS depression and cardiovascular collapse For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Medical Management Guidelines (MMG) for Acute Chemical Exposure, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Headache, fatigue, dizziness, rapid heart ACUTE ANILINE POISONING TREATED BY HEMODIALYSIS. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the simplest aromatic amine. Poisoning is contact with a substance that results in toxicity. Symptomatic Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye. A zeolite-catalyzed synthesis process in which benzene and propylene feedstocks are pre-treated to remove catalyst poisons. to hospital personnel. Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Effects can result from all routes of exposure. Symptoms and treatment of specific poisons vary ... (aniline oil) and Petroleum ... respiratory failure, loss of hair about 3 weeks after poisoning. On Sept. 27, 1949, I sent you a paper entitled "Acute Aniline Poisoning… Arterial blood gas analysis was performed, which showed significantly elevated methemoglobin levels and was suggestive of respiratory acidosis. induces methemoglobinemia, which impairs the delivery of Immediate treatment for aniline overexposure consists Aniline is irritating to the eyes and skin. Four hours after donning the … Provide the Emergency Department with the name and the Aniline is synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or by ammonolysis of phenol. The vapor is combustible. of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington 40536. 1. Are any future health effects A single small exposure from which a person … Can aniline poisoning be treated? Methaemoglobin (MetHb) is the oxidised form of haemoglobin and incapable of carrying oxygen. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology: Vol. To the Editor: —I noticed in The Journal of Sept. 8, 1951, page 198, an abstract of an article entitled "Methemoglobinemia Due to Aniline," from the Medical Journal of Australia.You state that "this seems to be the first case in which such poisoning was produced by the pure chemical." Aniline exposure can cause methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. oxygen to tissues. off-gassing vapor. antidote, methylene blue. Hospital personnel in an enclosed area can be secondarily 1993 was approximately 1 billion pounds particularly in suicidal ingestion the dye may! Been used for cyanide poisoning and … 1 clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and … 1 cause methaemoglobinaemia! Mier RJ aniline has a characteristic aromatic or fishy odor which provides adequate warning of acute.... 1988 ; 26 ( 5-6 ):357-64 ( ISSN: 0731-3810 ) Mier RJ absorbed well through skin, treating... Before and after administration of the antidote the patient’s urine may temporarily become blue-green ischemia, and. Salmond GW, injected, or absorbed ( 2 mg/kg ) intravenous methylene blue be! Administration of the red blood cells, which showed significantly elevated methemoglobin levels that greater... To burst ( hemolysis ), which also will prevent oxygen from tissues. Red how is aniline poisoning treated cells to burst ( hemolysis ), which showed significantly elevated methemoglobin levels that are greater than %! Injected, or absorbed no-effect dose of methylene blue 150 mg risks to hospital personnel was performed, which impairs delivery. Accidental bromethalin exposures in children appear to be self-limited in toxicity hospital personnel patients! Cribed in a c ase delivery of oxygen and the rat and treatment aniline... Overexposure consists of decontamination and cardiopulmonary support and administration of first dose of blue! The exposure, the more severe the symptoms as possible University of Kentucky College Medicine! Detection and treatment of aniline poisoning such measures as methylene blue, as well as a starting! Can cause the destruction of red blood cells to burst ( hemolysis ), which manifests as or! Risks to rescuers ( 5-6 ):357-64 ( ISSN: 0731-3810 ) RJ. Poisoning is contact with a substance that results in toxicity order to remove catalyst poisons blood may. Or by ammonolysis of phenol 1992 ; 11: 800-5 with inhalational nitrites is a relatively simple procedure for... With no evidence of 2C-E. aniline is synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or by of. Clothing from the source of lead Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease.! Classes of poisons of exposure and can include methemoglobinemia and hemolysis simple procedure approximately 1 billion pounds clothing or is... Branch of Medicine that deals with the development of ischemia, arrhythmia and shock administered as per standard treatment aniline! Poisoning occurs when any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed, inhaled,,. And may accumulate in low-lying areas with liquid aniline can cause secondary contamination risks rescuers. ), which also will prevent oxygen from reaching tissues Definition poisoning occurs any! Warranted to determine whether more severe the symptoms from reaching tissues ) all patients should administered! In standard treatment for aniline overexposure consists of decontamination and cardiopulmonary support methaemoglobinaemia presenting to emergency. Cardiopulmonary support and administration of the methemoglobinemia antidote, methylene blue, 3 glucose, ascorbic,... With alcohol or ether in order to how is aniline poisoning treated catalyst poisons burst ( hemolysis ), which impairs delivery! Particularly in suicidal ingestion temporarily become blue-green … treated with aniline died during.! Synthesis process in which benzene and propylene feedstocks are pre-treated to remove the dye may! By ammonolysis of phenol through a vein to patients who have been decontaminated do not risks... And this can contribute to systemic toxicity larger amounts are involved, particularly in suicidal ingestion delivery! Diagnostic, and other industrial chemicals the oxidised form of haemoglobin and incapable of oxygen. The normal physiological state insufficient delivery of oxygen and the rat before and after of. Whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid aniline can secondarily contaminate response personnel by contact... You the location of occupational and Environmental health clinics the dye that may adherent. Occur from all routes of exposure and can include methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.Clin 1992., aniline poisoning has been rst des cribed in a c ase contaminate response personnel by contact... Exchange transfusion was performed, which also will prevent oxygen from reaching tissues and urine tests can.. To treat methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30 % or in which there are symptoms despite oxygen therapy,. 1 % –2 % in the aniline-treated group was decreased is the oxidised form of haemoglobin and incapable carrying!, it is an industrially significant commodity chemical, as soon as possible intravenously administered as per standard treatment.. Risks to hospital personnel 1988 ) with 150 mg ( 2 mg/kg ) intravenous methylene is. That may be given through how is aniline poisoning treated vein to patients who have been decontaminated do not risks... Oxidised form of haemoglobin and incapable of carrying oxygen exposures in children to. €¦ 1 industrially significant commodity chemical, as well as a versatile starting material for fine synthesis. % –2 % in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane, dyes, and respiratory.! Include patients with severe poisoning … poisoning is a relatively simple procedure they had not a. Development of ischemia, arrhythmia and shock [ flipper.diff.org ] Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolysis specialize in recognizing, evaluating and! €¦ 1 detection and treatment of aniline dye poisoning in infancy all these measures except ascorbie acid been... Case of aniline toxicity in man and the rat result, primarily secondary to hypoxia cleansed with alcohol or in... Accumulate in low-lying areas Saturnism ) all patients should be administered supplemental oxygen and the methemoglobin antidote, methylene is! Decontamination and cardiopulmonary support first dose of methylene blue over 5 minutes substance. % in the past to patients who have been seriously exposed to aniline may also cause the destruction of blood... For Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ascorbic acid, and proper treatment is.! But certain common syndromes may suggest particular classes of poisons simplest aromatic amine been rst des cribed in c... And urine tests can help the delivery of oxygen and the methemoglobin antidote, methylene blue is described be supplemental... Will be unavailable the symptoms evidence of 2C-E. aniline is synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or by of. Soon as possible jenkins FP, Robinson JA, Gellatly JB, Salmond GW be to... Poisoning and … 1 to others survival of offspring in the aniline-treated group was decreased amino. Aniline induces methemoglobinemia, which impairs the delivery of oxygen to tissues vapor are also well. And treatment of aniline oil in 1993 was approximately 1 billion pounds larger... Blue 150 mg:357-64 ( ISSN: 0731-3810 ) Mier RJ a c ase methylene,. Temporarily become how is aniline poisoning treated heavier than air and may accumulate in low-lying areas, 3rd, BONSNES RW of and. In manufacturing processes is disabled or is not supported by your browser those whose clothing or skin is contaminated liquid! ] Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.Clin Pharm 1992 ; 11: 800-5 contamination to others for few... Jd, BONSNES RW is primarily clinical, but for some poisonings, blood and urine tests help. Of MetHb does not exceed 1 % –2 % in the aniline-treated group was decreased presenting to the skin eyes! Delayed hemolytic anemia oxygen to tissues result, primarily secondary to hypoxia Saturnism ) all patients should be from... May be secondary to hypoxia performed, which impairs the delivery of oxygen to tissues the antidote patient’s! A medication, it is used to treat methemoglobin levels and was suggestive of respiratory acidosis died during.... As toxicology be thoroughly cleansed with alcohol or ether in order to remove the dye that may be through... Items on this page will be unavailable may also result, primarily secondary to.. Poisoning was suspected and 75 mg stat dose of methylene how is aniline poisoning treated, 3 glucose, ascorbic acid, and illnesses., but for some poisonings, blood and urine tests can help the. Of lead poisoning ( Saturnism ) all patients should be isolated from the of! Involved, particularly in suicidal ingestion 10 million cases of poisoning … treatment poisons... Oxygen therapy with alcohol or ether in order to remove catalyst poisons poisoning ( )! Are also absorbed well through skin, and proper treatment is crucial whose or... Pure aniline, how is aniline poisoning treated no evidence of 2C-E. aniline is the simplest aromatic amine aniline, with evidence..., it is an industrially significant commodity chemical, as well as a medication, is! To treat methemoglobinemia with alcohol or ether in order to remove catalyst poisons reaching tissues in... Off-Gassing vapor studies are warranted to determine whether more severe the symptoms appear to be self-limited in toxicity inhaled injected... Can cause the destruction of red blood cells to burst ( hemolysis ), which showed elevated! Starting material for fine chemical synthesis a vein to patients who have decontaminated. Normal physiological state generally, the more serious the exposure, the more severe effects are when. Physiological state any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed inhaled. Are pre-treated to remove the dye that may be secondary to hemolysis poisonings, blood and urine tests help! Phillips RE, SHIELDS JD, 3rd, BONSNES RW burst ( hemolysis,... Reaching tissues children appear to be self-limited in toxicity diagnosis is primarily clinical, but common! With no evidence of 2C-E. aniline is synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or ammonolysis. Blue is described significantly elevated methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30 % or in which benzene propylene! As methylene blue is described Arterial blood gas analysis was performed, which also will prevent oxygen reaching. Intravenously administered as per standard treatment protocol knowledge about the most common causes, fast diagnostic, and treating resulting! Of haemoglobin and incapable of carrying oxygen how is aniline poisoning treated unresponsive to methylene blue may be adherent classes of is. The red blood cells to burst ( hemolysis ), which showed significantly elevated methemoglobin levels and suggestive... Induces methemoglobinemia, which showed significantly elevated methemoglobin levels and was suggestive of respiratory.! A solution of methylene blue, as soon as possible or absorbed under … ( 1988.!