The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Therefore, the steel slag in a dense state would have better seismic shear resistance when the steel slag is applied into shallow foundation improvement. Owing to its high Si content, the use of slag as silicate fertilizer is gaining demand. The specific test parameters are shown in Table 2. In this paper, the dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio of waste steel slag would be investigated by resonance column tests. It also contains phosphorous, calcium, ash, remnants of flux materials such as limestone, and remainders of chemical reactions between the metal and the furnace lining. Liyan Wang, Jiatao Yan, Qi Wang, Binghui Wang, Wenxue Gong, "Dynamic Shear Properties of Recycled Waste Steel Slag Used as a Geo-Backfill Material", Shock and Vibration, vol. Dynamic Shear Properties of Recycled Waste Steel Slag Used as a Geo-Backfill Material, Professor (Ph D), School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, No. The results showed that the linear fitting effect was perfect between the reference shear strain and confining pressure: Considering the influence of confining pressures and combing equations (3) and (5), the Hardin–Drnevich model of the steel slag dynamic properties was established. (4)The regression analysis of the normalized dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio was performed very well according to the Hardin–Drnevich model. Steel slags are used as coarse aggregates in the pavement bases and subbase, providing relatively high binding strength, as well as high frictional and abrasion resistance. This study discussed the suitability of stabilized material for subgrade pavement. From: Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018 The maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag had a good linear relationship with the relative density of the steel slag. In our study we use electric arc furnace slag as coarse aggregate for pavement construction. The overall trend lines of G-γ were basically the same and upward with the increase of confining pressure. The fitting results are listed in Figure 10 and in Table 4. Samples were prepared according to the standard for the soil test method. Z. Ling, F. Zhang, Q. L. Li, L. S. An, and J. H. Wang, “Dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio of frozen compacted sand subjected to freeze-thaw cycle under multi-stage cyclic loading,”, P. H. H. Giang, P. O. V. Impe, W. F. V. Impe, P. Menge, and W. Haegeman, “Small-strain shear modulus of calcareous sand and its dependence on particle characteristics and gradation,”, K. Senetakis, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Pitilakis, “Dynamic properties of dry sand/rubber (SRM) and gravel/rubber (GRM) mixtures in a wide range of shearing strain amplitudes,”, W. Zhou, Y. Chen, G. Ma, L. Yang, and X. Chang, “A modified dynamic shear modulus model for rockfill materials under a wide range of shear strain amplitudes,”, H. Zhuang, R. Wang, G. Chen, Y. Miao, and K. Zhao, “Shear modulus reduction of saturated sand under large liquefaction-induced deformation in cyclic torsional shear tests,”, L.-Y. Blast furnace slag in the granulated form was applied as a granular fill overlay on soft subgrade soil [11]. Therefore, the water content in the test sample was set as 6%. According to our research, the permeability coefficient is in the range of 10−3∼10−2. • As can be seen from Table 3, with the increase of relative density, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag had been significantly improved. The shear modulus and damping ratio of a backfill material are two essential indexes for the seismic performance analysis and safety performance evaluation of backfill materials [23–29]. On the contrary, the use of slag as a raw material for fertil- izer or soil amendment still remains relatively small—160 2)000 tons for blast furnace slag and 100 000 tons for steelmaking slag. The overall trend lines of. It is the second largest waste in metallurgical industry. The aged waste steel slag in the test was produced by the Yonggang Company in Zhangjiagang, China, which is shown in Figure 1. The loading density (ρ) was calculated using the following equation:where represents the water content of steel slag. This work evaluates the potential reuse of steel slag to improve the performance of landfill liners. The overall variation tendency between the dynamic shear modulus and shear strain was basically the same under different relative densities and confining pressure. Some of the steel slag from ironworks and dredged soils from marine and waterfront engineering work are partially treated as waste. The aim of this study the impact of slag material in geotechnical engineering and to stabilize properties of contaminated soils. The maximum dynamic shear modulus (Gmax) could be obtained from the fitted lines of G−1 and γ. The maximum dynamic shear modulus was discussed, and the dynamic model of the steel slag was constructed by the Hardin–Drnevich model. The carpet waste fibers and steel slag as environmental friendly additives were applied to overcome the swelling and weakness of the expansive soil [14]. Y. Huang, R. N. Bird, and O. Heidrich, “A review of the use of recycled solid waste materials in asphalt pavements,”, W.-T. Tsai, “Analysis of the sustainability of reusing industrial wastes as energy source in the industrial sector of Taiwan,”, T. Huang, X. Its pH-raising effect is similar to that of ground limestone. Almost half of it (500 000 t) is been reused, either within the steel mill or beyond. The reason for this phenomenon was that the steel slag was in an elastic state when the shear strain was small and the dynamic energy loss was relatively smaller. Therefore, the steel slag has good dynamic shear resistance and had potential to become a substitute for sand in the practical geotechnical engineering in the future. The dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was far greater than Nanjing fine sand no matter what the confining pressure was and was similar to those of Fujian standard sand. The maximum dry density is determined by the vibration hammer method, and the minimum dry density is determined by the funnel and cylinder method. STABILIZATION OF SOILS WITH STEEL SLAG AND CEMENT FOR APPLICATION IN RURAL AND LOW TRAFFIC ROADS The goal of this study was to increase the bearing capacity of cement stabilized soil system by addition of furnace steel slag, which will also result in a … The grain size distribution of the waste steel slag is shown in Figure 2. Common components of slag include the oxides of silicon, aluminum, and magnesium, as well as sulfur, which is always present. BK20161360), the Six Major Talents Peak in Jiangsu Province in China (Grant no. The large amount of Industrial wastes as increased year by year and disposal becomes a very serious problem. With the rapid development of society, there are more and more industrial solid wastes, which include some recycled resources such as waste steel slag. Table 1 Properties of the used materials. The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. The relationship between the control density and the relative density can be expressed as follows:where Dr, ρmax, ρmin, and ρd represent the relative density, the maximum dry density, the minimum dry density, and the control density, respectively. In this instance, Gmax represents fitted values. Furthermore, when the water content is 6%, the steel slag is apt to form the test sample. Especially when the confining pressure reached 300 kPa, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was in the numerical range of those of Fujian standard sand. Most of SS is landfilled, which represents a significant economic loss and a waste of valuable land space. Muscatine County officials estimate that approximately 350 lineal miles of county roads throughout the county have slag applied to their surface. The content of Fe2O3 in the waste steel slag sample is very low. Today, iron and steel slag is used in many fields where its unique characteristics can be put to effective use. As could be seen from Table 4, with the increase of the relative density and confining pressure, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag increased. They were staggered and had nearly no offset. The effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregate was evaluated, and a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses, and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads [10]. The stiffness of stabilized soil increases to 58–78% as compared to clay soil. Huang, H.-Y. Mixed sand with steel slag formed mixed soil material and could effectively improve the bearing capacity of foundation and reduce the settlement of foundation [7]. It is necessary to utilize the steel slag waste affectively with technical development in each field. The rest of waste, which In the sample test, the relative density of steel slag was selected for 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, because steel slag is applied as a kind of the shallow-layer backfill material. The gradation characteristics of the steel slag are as follows: d60 = 1.0 mm, d30 = 0.47 mm, and d10 = 0.12 mm; the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8.3, and the coefficient of curvature was 1.8 (Cc). Waste steel slag is a recycled industrial solid waste and is sometimes used as backfills, but the dynamic shear properties of waste steel slag have not been researched at present. The comparison results when the confining pressure is, respectively, 100 kPa, 200 kPa, and 300 kPa are shown in Table 6. The dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag decreased with the increase of shear strain, and the damping ratio increased with the increase of shear strain. A mixture of steel slag and lime soil was formed and had good frost resistance and corrosion resistance. It should be less than 30%. • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. ), School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, No. The maximum dynamic shear modulus of waste steel slag was close to Fujian sand under low confining pressure. Reference shear strains under different confining pressures. Especially when the confining pressure reached 300 kPa, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was in the numerical range of those of Fujian standard sand. Basic slag (CaSiO3) is produced through the open-hearth method of steelmaking and is used to amend highly acidic soil. Celik and Nalbantoglu [ 27] studied the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the control of swell associated with lime stabilized sulphate bearing soil. Steel slag is a by-product of the steelmaking process, and the annual output increases continuously with the increase of the steel output. On comparison, it is found to be a better material than both the stone aggregate and BF Slag. The water content of steel slag is low, and the permeability of the steel slag is good. At present, the maximum dynamic shear modulus (Gmax) is determined by the laboratory test data. Relationship between the maximum dynamic shear modulus and relative density (. L. Y. Wang, B. T. Huang, and P. Gao, “A new geo-material consisting of industrial wastes and its preparation and application,” 2013, China, No. There is a need to investigate the availability of silicon in sources which are potentially available for those where response to Si is also being demonstrated, dry weight. • The CBR value of the steel slag aggregates is found to be 21.32% and 25.62% for soaked and unsoaked conditions, respectively. The test sample size is 50 mm () × 100 mm (H). For example, GZ1 was compared to GZ3; when the confining pressure was 100 kPa, Gmax increased from 108 MPa to 162 MPa and increased approximately by 50%; when the confining pressure was 300 kPa, Gmax increased from 235 MPa to 280 MPa and only increased by 19.5%. The maximum dynamic shear modulus was the intercept of the G−1-γ line. To understand the dynamic shear properties of waste steel slag, the resonance column tests were carried out to investigate the dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio of the steel slag considering the effect of the relative density of steel slag and confining pressure. 2 Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China, Master Student (Ba. The dynamic shear modulus decreased with the increase of shear strain for all of the samples with different relative densities. The overall trend lines of G-γ were upward with the increase of the relative density and confining pressure. 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